You Position : Home  News

Glyphosate

Hangzhou Norming Biological  Technology Co. Ltd

Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) is a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide used to kill weeds, especially annual broadleaf weeds and grasses known to compete with commercial crops grown around the globe. It was discovered to be a herbicide by Monsanto chemist John E. Franz in 1970. Monsanto brought it to market in the 1970s under the trade name "Roundup", and Monsanto's last commercially relevant United States patent expired in 2000.

Glyphosate was quickly adopted by farmers, even more so when Monsanto introduced glyphosate-resistant crops, enabling farmers to kill weeds without killing their crops. In 2007 glyphosate was the most used herbicide in the United States agricultural sector, with 180 to 185 million pounds (82,000 to 84,000 tonnes) applied, and the second most used in home and garden market where users applied 5 to 8 million pounds (2,300 to 3,600 tonnes); additionally industry, commerce and government applied 13 to 15 million pounds (5,900 to 6,800 tonnes). With its heavy use in agriculture, weed resistance to glyphosate is a growing problem. While glyphosate and formulations such as Roundup have been approved by regulatory bodies worldwide and are widely used, concerns about their effects on humans and the environment persist.

Glyphosate's mode of action is to inhibit an enzyme involved in the synthesis of the aromatic amino acids tyrosine, tryptophan and phenylalanine. It is absorbed through foliage and translocated to growing points. Because of this mode of action, it is only effective on actively growing plants; it is not effective as a pre-emergence herbicide.

Some crops have been genetically engineered to be resistant to glyphosate (i.e. "Roundup Ready", also created by Monsanto Company). Such crops allow farmers to use glyphosate as a post-emergence herbicide against both broadleaf and cereal weeds, but the development of similar resistance in some weed species is emerging as a costly problem. Soy was the first "Roundup Ready" crop.

Glyphosate is effective in killing a wide variety of plants, including grasses, broadleaf, and woody plants. It has a relatively small effect on some clover species. By volume, it is one of the most widely used herbicides. It is commonly used for agriculture, horticulture, viticulture and silviculture purposes, as well as garden maintenance (including home use). Prior to harvest glyphosate is used for crop desiccation (siccation) to increase the harvest yield.

In many cities, glyphosate is sprayed along the sidewalks and streets, as well as crevices in between pavement where weeds often grow. However, up to 24% of glyphosate applied to hard surfaces can be run off by water. Glyphosate contamination of surface water is highly attributed to urban use. Glyphosate is used to clear railroad tracks and get rid of unwanted aquatic vegetation.

Glyphosate is one of a number of herbicides used by the United States and Colombian governments to spray coca fields through Plan Colombia. Its effects on legal crops and effectiveness in fighting the war on drugs have been disputed. There are reports that widespread application of glyphosate in attempts to destroy coca crops in South America have resulted in the development of glyphosate-resistant strains of coca nicknamed "Boliviana Negra", which have been selectively bred to be both "Roundup Ready" and larger and higher yielding than the original strains of the plant. However, there are no reports of glyphosate-resistant coca in the peer-reviewed literature. In addition, since spraying of herbicides is not permitted in Colombian national parks, this has encouraged coca growers to move into park areas, cutting down the natural vegetation, and establishing coca plantations within park lands.

分享到:

Products


Hangzhou Norming Biological
Technology Co., Ltd.

Add: Room 301,Unit 1,Building No.2 
Hongshulin Garden,No.235 Tiancheng
Road, 
Jianggan District,Hangzhou,China
Tel:+86-571-86753596, 86767230
Fax:+86-571-86767231
E-mail:chenwm@normingbio.com